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‘freedom’, Roman goddess, linked with Jupiter in the cult of Jupiter Libertas and in the censors' headquarters, the Atrium Libertatis; worshipped alone on the Aventine in a temple built by Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus. Her ideological connection with the freedoms of the ordinary citizen is apparent: freedom opposed both to the state of slavery and to domination by the powerful. The term was often used in the late republic and early empire to designate the liberty of the politician to develop his career without interference, and so came to focus various types of resistance to the more autocratic aspects of the early Principate. But Augustus had made a point of restoring the temples of both Libertas and Jupiter Libertas (Res Gestae 19). See freedom in the ancient world.

Subjects: Classical Studies.

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