(b. 13 Aug. 1871, d. 15 Jan. 1919).
German Communist A lawyer, he joined the SPD in 1900. He served as a member of the Prussian Chamber of Deputies in 1908, and in the German parliament in 1912, where he was the sole MP to reject the taking of loans to finance the war on 4 December 1914. Because of his opposition to the war he was expelled from the party and imprisoned 1916–18. Together with Rosa Luxemburg he founded the Spartakist group and the Communist Party on 1 January 1919. He was murdered in a Spartakist rising which he led.
Subjects: Literature — Contemporary History (Post 1945).