1 The interdependency of domestic and international politics. In studies of international relations, such as Robert D. Putnam's 1998 article ‘Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two‐Level Games’, an emphasis on linkage tends to highlight the constraints faced by actors in international negotiations due to domestic political factors. The determination of the national interest is seen to be less of a unitary process, rather a pluralistic and contingent negotiation reflecting public opinion and partisan influences.
2 In diplomacy, the bringing together of ostensibly separate issues in negotiations (often carrots and sticks).
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