Emanuel List


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(b Vienna, 22 March 1888; d Vienna, 21 June 1967). Austrian bass, later naturalized American. He was a chorister at the Theater an der Wien, then emigrated to the USA, where he sang in vaudeville and then studied with Josiah Zuro. Returning to Vienna in 1920, he made his début at the Volksoper in 1922 as Méphistophélès. The next year he went to the Charlottenburg Opera, Berlin, and from 1925 to 1933 was a member of the Staatsoper. He made his Covent Garden début in 1925 as Pogner and returned (1934–6) as Hunding, Hagen, King Mark, Ramfis and Ochs, his most famous role. He sang at the Metropolitan (where he made his début as the Landgrave in Tannhäuser) from 1933 to 1950 and at San Francisco, Chicago and Buenos Aires. At Salzburg between 1931 and 1935 he sang Osmin, the Commendatore, Rocco and King Mark, and at the 1933 Bayreuth Festival, Fafner, Hunding and Hagen. Forced to leave Germany, he became a naturalized American and did not return to Berlin until 1950. List had a deep, rich bass which, with his imposing presence, admirably fitted him for the Wagner villains he so tellingly portrayed. He recorded several of his Wagner roles, including Hunding on Bruno Walter's famous 1935 recording of Die Walküre, Act 1.

From The Grove Book of Opera Singers in Oxford Reference.

Subjects: Opera.

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