1. A tendency to interpret a verbal expression as if it means no more than what is made explicit in the form of words used.
2. The stance that the meaning of a text is contained within it and is completely determined by it so that all the reader must do is to ‘extract’ this meaning from the signs within it. This stance ignores the importance of ‘going beyond the information given’ (Bruner) and limits comprehension to the decoding (in the narrowest sense) of textual properties (without reference to codes or contexts).