The uppermost reaches of the littoral zone of marine ecosystems. On rocky shores it is the main area for Littorina species (periwinkles), and the black lichen, Verrucaria, and is distinguished from the lower, eulittoral zone by the absence of barnacles (e.g. Balanus species and Chthamalus species). On sandy shores crabs, beach amphipods, and some land insects are characteristic.
Subjects: Plant Sciences and Forestry — Ecology and Conservation.