The institutions around local governments engaged in the design and implementation of economic and social policy: business elites, community leaders, development corporations, training and enterprise councils, and voluntary groups. Local governance, regime theory, and new regionalism literature argue that horizontal networks, consisting of public, private, and non-profit agents, diminish the significance of formal hierarchical political-territorial structures (Kubler and Heinelt in H. Heinelt and D. Kubler, eds 2005). However, Rosen and Razin (2007) Tijdschrift 98, 1 show that they only reshape the intervention of the central state in local development. See Tewdwr-Jones (2003) Int. Plan. Studs 8 on place-making as the tool of effective local governance.
Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.