Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer

(1836—1920) astronomer and journal editor

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Englishscientist and solar physicist. He was the first to study sunspots spectroscopically, finding Doppler shifts caused by convection currents in the Sun's gases. In 1868, independently of P. J. C. Janssen, he observed the spectra of solar prominences and developed a spectrohelioscope. Janssen found a new line in the solar spectrum, which Lockyer attributed to a hitherto unknown element. He named it helium (hēlios is Greek for ‘Sun’); it was discovered in the Earth's atmosphere in 1895. Lockyer also studied archaeoastronomical sites such as Stonehenge, and founded and edited the science journal Nature.

Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics.

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