US statesman and Republican senator (1893–1924).
Lodge was born into a wealthy family in Boston and graduated from Harvard in 1874 with a degree in law. Admitted to the bar in 1876, he returned to Harvard to take up an academic post in the American History department before entering politics in 1879. After two years in the Massachusetts House of Representatives, he moved to the US House in 1887 and to the Senate in 1893, where he served until his death. He soon became a prominent Republican leader, with a particular interest in international affairs, rising in 1918 to a position of considerable power as Republican floor leader in the Senate and chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee. Although he had backed President Woodrow Wilson on the issue of the USA's entry into World War I, Lodge was bitterly opposed to certain aspects of the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations Covenant, which Wilson submitted to the Senate for approval in 1919. Supported by fellow isolationists in the Senate, Lodge drew up a list of objections known as the ‘Lodge reservations’. Wilson refused to compromise, however, and the treaty was ultimately rejected by the Senate.
In 1921, under the new Republican administration of President Warren G. Harding (1865–1923), Lodge served as delegate to the Washington Conference on the Limitations of Armaments. He also wrote prolifically on historical and political issues, notably Daniel Webster (1882), George Washington (1888), and The Senate and the League of Nations (1925).
His grandson, also called Henry Cabot Lodge (1902–85), was a prominent diplomat.
Subjects: Arts and Humanities — Warfare and Defence.