(b. 147 ce).
A Han-dynasty Buddhist monk and one of the earliest translators of Buddhist literature into Chinese. Originally from Scythia, he arrived in the capital Lo-yang and worked there between 178 and 189, producing about 20 translations, including the important Pratyutpanna Sūtra (containing the first mention of meditation upon Amitābha Buddha and his Pure Land) as well as the first translations of Perfection of Insight literature (see Prajñā-pāramitā Sūtras). Thus, his work paved the way for the earliest practice of Pure Land meditation and the discussions of Buddhist philosophy that made possible the ‘Profound Learning’ (Chin., hsüan hsueh) conversations between Buddhists and Taoists.