Was until 1973 one of the six counties of Northern Ireland. It is dominated by Londonderry itself, near the mouth of the Foyle, with a population of nearly 100,000. In 1610 the city of London took over the area for colonization and began building the walls. In 1689, as a protestant bastion, it withstood the famous siege by James II's troops. Later it became a centre for linen manufacture and in the 20th cent. diversified into chemicals and light industry. Civil rights demonstrations in the city in 1969 were the beginning of the renewed troubles that have haunted Northern Ireland.