Were built between 461 and 456 bc to connect Athens to her ports, Phaleron and Piraeus. Thucydides (2) records an attempt by enemies of the democracy to stop the building of the Long Walls, i.e. the walls were identified with democracy. The Phaleric wall was replaced by a third, parallel to the northern or Piraeus wall, c.445. They were destroyed by the Spartans to aulos‐music in 404, rebuilt by Conon 1 in 393, but allowed to fall into a half‐ruined state by 200. The walls to Piraeus were about 6.5 km. (4 mi.) long and c.180 m. (200 yds.) apart. The course of the Phaleric wall is uncertain. The main road from Piraeus to Athens lay outside, the road inside being primarily military. The Long Walls were used in the Peloponnesian War to make Athens into an isolated fortress, in which most of the population of Attica could live on seaborne provisions. The example of Long Walls was followed elsewhere, notably at Megara, and even Corinth.
Subjects: Classical Studies.