(b. 26 May 1910, d. 22 Sept. 1969).
President of Mexico 1958–64 A graduate in law, he became a university lecturer and entered politics in 1946. He became secretary-general of Mexico's major party, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), and was a successful Minister of Labour under President Cortines (1952–8). Despite his pro-labour reputation, as President he broke the militant railworkers' strike of 1959, but afterwards he introduced a general profit-sharing plan for Mexican workers. He carried out a land reform whose extent was second only to that of Cárdenas, as 30 million acres (around 12.1 million hectares) of land were redistributed to landless peasants. A low rate of inflation and a stable exchange rate were maintained, which attracted foreign investment. In foreign affairs, he finally settled a long-running border dispute south of El Paso with the USA, and maintained a foreign policy of conscious independence from the USA, refusing to break diplomatic relations with Castro's Cuba.
Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).