A transducer for converting an electrical signal into an acoustic signal. Usually it is important to preserve as many characteristics of the electrical waveform as possible. The device must be capable of reproducing frequencies in the range 150–8000 hertz for speech and 20–20 000 Hz for music.
The most common loudspeaker consists of a moving-coil device. In this a cone-shaped diaphragm is attached to a coil of wire and made to vibrate in accordance with the electrical signal by the interaction between the current passing through the coil and a steady magnetic field from a permanent magnet surrounding it.