(12 Mar. 1144–15 Feb. 1145)
The successor of Celestine II, Gherardo Caccianemici was born at Bologna, and before joining the curia was a canon of S. Frediano, Lucca, the most important Italian congregation of canons regular. Callistus II appointed him cardinal priest of Sta Croce (which he renovated, attaching to it a body of canons regular), and from then on he was a leading member of the curia, distinguished for his exemplary character and energetic service to successive popes. As Honorius II's legate in Germany he worked in 1125 for the election of Lothair III as king (1125–37), and in 1126 for the nomination of Norbert of Xanten (c.1080–1134) as archbishop of Magdeburg. Rector, i.e. governor, of Benevento in 1130, he collaborated with Chancellor Aimeric in 1138 in supporting Innocent II in a dispute with Lothair over Monte Cassino, and on Aimeric's death in 1144 Innocent appointed him chancellor and librarian. His friends included Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–1153), Walter of Ravenna, and Abbot Peter the Venerable of Cluny (c.1092–1156).
Lucius restored to Tours (May 1144) its metropolitan jurisdiction over Brittany, temporarily usurped by the bishop of Dol (near Mont-St-Michel); he confirmed the primacy of Toledo over the Iberian peninsula, including Portugal; and he accepted Portugal as a fief of the holy see. But he faced political difficulties in Rome itself, where a popular commune had recently been proclaimed. It now set up a senate independent of the holy see and its rule, and appointed as its leader, with the title of patrician, none other than Giordano Pierleoni, brother of the late antipope Anacletus II. To secure support Lucius sought to reach an understanding with Roger II of Sicily (1095–1154), with whom he had enjoyed friendly relations since his time as rector at Benevento. A meeting at Ceprano, however, came to nothing, Roger's sons resumed their attacks on the papal states, and the pope had to content himself with a seven-year armistice under which Roger retained possession of the occupied territories but undertook to take no action against Benevento or other papal lands. In his need Lucius turned for help against the insurgent citizens, who were demanding independence from ecclesiastical control and the restriction of the clergy to spiritual functions and spiritual dues, to the new German king, the Hohenstaufen Conrad III (1138–52), but he was too deeply involved with trouble at home to provide it. Lucius then decided, in order to restore his authority in Rome, to take up arms himself at the head of such forces as remained at his disposal. Leading an unsuccessful assault on the Capitol, where the senate was installed, he was injured by heavy stones used as ammunition, and died shortly afterwards in the monastery of S. Gregorio.
PL 179: 819–938LP ii. 385 f.JW ii. 7–19, 717, 758Watterich ii. 278–81F. J. Schmale, Studien zum Schisma des Jahres 1130 (Cologne, 1961), esp. 48–50DBI lxvi. 357–61 (G. Milani)DTC ix. 1057 f. (É. Amann)EC vii. 1633 (S. Majarelli)EThC 93 (G. Schwaiger)Levillain ii. 959–60 (K. Schnith)Seppelt iii. 187–9Mann ix. 113–26