Lynar, Rochus Quirinus, Graf zu


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(b Maradia, Tuscany, 25 Dec 1525; d Spandau, nr Berlin, 22 Dec 1596). Italian architect and merchant, active in Germany. He had a French training and went to work in France from 1542 to 1554. In 1561 he supervised the construction of the Citadel of Metz. As a Huguenot, Lynar was later forced to flee France, and by 1569 he had entered the service of Augustus I, Elector of Saxony (reg 1553–86), who sent him to oversee the construction of the fortifications at Dresden and Freiberg. In 1572 he superseded Hieronymus Lotter (1540–84) at the Augustusburg fortress. Personal attacks connected with anti-Protestant feeling prevented his rising to a leading position as a regional Minister of Works and Artillery Commander. In 1571 he organized the mining industry for Saxony and completed designs for ideal fortifications in 1575. His services were in demand from patrons outside Saxony: he worked in Kassel, Friedelheim and Dessau (from 1577). In 1578 he was appointed by John George, Elector of Brandenburg (reg 1571–98), to a supervisory position similar to the one he had originally held in Dresden. Between 1578 and 1583 he constructed the fortifications at Spandau and Peitz. He also worked on the Berlin Schloss. In 1580 he set up his own saltworks in Beelitz and was active in the salt trade. A few of his buildings, for example the eastern curtain and the Kronprinz and Brandenburg bastions of the Citadel at Spandau, have survived. In his day Lynar had an unrivalled reputation as a fortifications architect and artillery expert; Korn, however, questioned his abilities as an architect. In 1582 he commissioned his own epitaph, which also serves as high altar at St Nikolai, Spandau: a three-winged altarpiece with Renaissance detail, executed in stone and painted in 1591–2 by Hieronymus Rosenbaum (fl 1580–97).

From The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art in Oxford Reference.

Subjects: Renaissance Art.

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