A phospholipid derivative with a single acyl chain, produced by a lysophospholipase D (autotaxin), that has pleiotropic signalling activity causing mitogenesis, cell survival, inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, and calcium mobilization. It will also induce platelet aggregation, smooth muscle contraction, inhibition of neuroblastoma cell differentiation, chemotaxis, and tumour cell invasion. The lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1 (LPAR 1, endothelial differentiation gene 2, EDG2; 364 aa), is a G-protein-coupled receptor through which most of its activities are mediated; the receptor also binds sphingosine 1-phosphate. LPAR1 is also reported to be expressed in the nucleus and to traffic between plasma membrane and nucleus in response to LPA. There are related receptors, LPAR2 (EDG4) and LPAR3 (EDG7). LPAR4 is a member of the purinergic GPCR cluster.
Subjects: Medicine and Health.