(b Neuilly, 1930).
Amer. conductor, composer, and violinist. Cond. at NY World Fair and Hollywood Bowl 1939 when a child, leading Amer. orchs., incl. NYPO, NBC SO, Chicago, and Cleveland, from 1941. Violinist in Pittsburgh SO from 1948. Cond. in It. from 1953. Mus. dir. Deutsche Oper 1965–71; Berlin Radio SO 1965–75. Débuts: Bayreuth Fest. 1960; NY Met 1962; Salzburg Fest. 1963; CG 1978. Ass. prin. cond. New Philharmonia 1970–2; cond. and mus. dir. Cleveland Orch. 1972–82; chief cond. Orch. Nat. de France 1977–82, mus. dir. 1988–91; prin. cond. Pittsburgh SO 1988–96; Bavarian Radio SO 1992–2002, NYPO from 2002. Dir., Vienna Opera 1982–6 (first Amer. to hold post) but left amid controversy in 1984. Comp. opera 1984 (CG, 2005).