Metropolitan of Moscow from 1879. Michael Bulgakov took the name of Macarius when he became a monk. He held academic posts until he was appointed Bp. of Tambov in 1857. His two main works on theology reflect the official doctrinal position which had been imposed on the Russian Church to counteract Protestant influences. He also wrote a history of the Russian Church [to 1667] (12 vols., 1857–82).