British architect, who is considered an important figure in the evolution of modern architecture. One of the exponents of art nouveau, he established a severe version of the style; nearly all his best buildings are in Glasgow.
Born in Glasgow, Mackintosh trained as an architect as an evening student at the Glasgow School of Art, after which he was articled to a Glaswegian architect, John Hutchinson. In 1896 he won a competition for the new building of the Glasgow School of Art (1898–1909), which was widely acclaimed when the building was completed. For Catherine Cranston he designed four unusual tearooms (1897–1912), including the decor and the furniture. These were much admired by Viennese designers, who invited him to submit a design for the interior of a flat for an exhibition in Vienna in 1900. This too attracted considerable attention abroad; at home, however, he was considered difficult and unreliable. In 1923 he moved south, first to Walberswick in Suffolk, then to London. Apart from a brief spell in France, he remained in London until he died. However, he never succeeded in establishing an architectural practice in London. The last decades of the twentieth century saw a major revival of interest in his work.
Subjects: Architecture — Art.