Algerian Islamic activist and political leader. As a member of the National Liberation Front (FLN), Madani resisted the French colonizers. He was arrested and imprisoned for eight years. Later received a British doctoral degree in comparative education and was appointed professor at the University of Algiers (1978). He grew increasingly critical of the FLN's socialist orientation, and when a new constitution allowing the formation of political parties was adopted in February 1989, Madani established the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS). In the 1990 elections FIS won a majority of parliamentary seats. A new electoral law favoring the FLN was passed, and he and his deputy, Ali Bel Hajj, were arrested and sentenced to twelve years for leading an armed conspiracy against state security. Managing to integrate several Islamic parties into the FIS, Madani transformed the party into a potent political force in Algeria, challenging the historic monopoly of the FLN.