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An ancient northern Indian kingdom, situated east and south of the Gaṅgā, including much of modern Bihar. Under its first king, Bimbisāra (c.465–413 bce), it was the breeding ground for various renouncer movements, including Jainism and, particularly, early Buddhism. Bimbisāra's son, Ajātaśatru (c.413–381 bce) expanded the kingdom into what is sometimes referred to as the first Indian empire. The Mauryans subsequently ran their empire from Magadha, as did the Guptas and the Pālas, and it remained the heartland of Indian Buddhism until the middle of the 1st millennium ce. Initially at Rājgṛha, the capital subsequently moved to Pāṭaliputra.

Subjects: Buddhism — Hinduism.

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