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Short Sanskrit sentences, or mantras, from the Upaniṣads believed by many Vedāntins to embody the essence of Vedānta. They include tat tvam asi (‘that is you’), ahaṃ brahmāsmi (‘I am brahman’), ayam ātmā brahma (‘ātman is brahman’), prajñānaṃ brahma (‘wisdom is brahman’), and sarvaṃ khalu idaṃ brahma (‘all this [everything] is brahman’). The first four are imparted by the guru to his pupil as the latter undertakes the orthodox ritual of renunciation (saṃnyāsa).

Subjects: Hinduism.

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