Egyptian Islamic intellectual, writer, professor of law, and former minister. Calls for a moderate, rational Islamic reform that links its program of change to the requirements of modern society. Believes in public and individual freedoms as a precondition for a lasting revival. Advocates gradualism in implementing the Islamic legislation and dialogue with intellectuals from non-Islamic currents. Believes Islamic rule should be based on the principles of shura (consultation), accountability of rulers, supremacy of Islamic-based rules, and respect for people's rights. Urges reconsideration of the concept of ahl al-dhimmah (people of the covenant) and promotes full equality between Muslims and non-Muslims.