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Makarios III

(1913—1977) Greek Orthodox archbishop and president of Cyprus


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(b. 13 Aug. 1913, d. 3 Aug. 1977).

Archbishop of Cyprus 1950–77; President of Cyprus 1960–77 Born Mihail Christodoulou Mouskos in Paphos on Cyprus. The son of a peasant, he became a novice monk, but after studying in Athens and in the USA, he decided to become a priest. He was ordained in 1946 and became a bishop in 1948. As Archbishop of the Orthodox Church of Cyprus, he was the leading figure to propagate Enosis (union with Greece). He cooperated with EOKA in its desire to rid the island of its British occupation, so that he was deported to the Seychelles in 1956. As leader of the Greek Cypriot community, he accepted the British offer of independence within the Commonwealth, instead of union with Greece. For this he was opposed by his former allies, EOKA, during his presidency. EOKA staged a coup against him, in conjunction with the Greek colonels. He was forced into exile, but when the coup failed owing to the Turkish invasion of parts of the island, he returned to hold office until his death.

Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).


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