Founder of the Japanese religious group Sōka Gakkai (Value Creation Society). A teacher by profession, Makiguchi believed that values had to be created through education in order to build a good society, and he also was deeply committed to the truth of Nichiren Buddhism. The Sōka Gakkai was originally established as a lay auxiliary of the Nichiren Shōshū, although it broke away in 1992. During Makiguchi's lifetime the membership of the Sōka Gakkai never exceeded a few thousand, and during the Second World War he was imprisoned for his refusal to comply with government directives that all religious groups give their support to the war effort. Within his exclusivistic religious outlook, this entailed a level of compromise and cooperation with other religious groups that he found unacceptable. He died in prison. See also Japan.