A communist insurgency in Malaya (1948–60). After World War II, minority Chinese resentment of Malay political dominance of the new Federation of Malaya was exploited by the (mainly Chinese) communist guerrillas who had fought against the Japanese. They initiated a series of attacks on planters and other estate owners, which between 1950 and 1953 flared up into a full-scale guerrilla war. Led by Chin Peng and supported by their own supply network (the Min Yuen), the communist guerrillas of the Malayan Races Liberation Army caused severe disruption in the early years of the campaign. However, during the time of Templer's period in charge of British and Commonwealth forces (1952–54), the insurgents were gradually defeated through the use of new jungle tactics, and the disruption of their supply network. The loyalty of the Malay and Indian population to the British, and the skilful use by the British of local leaders in the government committees, facilitated the peaceful transition to independence in 1957. By then the insurrection had been all but beaten, although the emergency was not officially ended until 1960.
Subjects: Military History.