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A general term for any gross anatomical deformity, such as neural tube defect, phocomelia, conjoined twins, cardiac septal defects, imperforate anus, and many more conditions. Malformations are congenital, sometimes with known causes, such as early prenatal exposure to viruses such as rubella, environmental toxins such as dioxin, ph armaceutical drugs such as thalidomide, or chromosomal or genomic abnormalities. Often the cause is unknown.

Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.

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