Late Iron Age oppidum originally adjacent to the Danube near Ingolstadt, Bavaria, established during the La Tène period, c.200 bc. Excavations by Werner Krämer during the 1950s showed that Manching was one of the largest oppida in Europe and may have been a regional market. The defences were elaborate, consisting of timber and stone walls 7 km in length, enclosing 350 ha, with four main gateways. Internally the settlement was well organized, probably pre‐planned, with wide streets and regular rows of rectangular buildings in front of zones containing pits and working areas. Other areas were enclosed for granaries or horse stalls. The site was divided into work areas for particular crafts, such as wood, leather, and ironworking. Coins were minted and used on the site. There is evidence of a violent end to the settlement c.50 bc, although some occupation may have continued later in the northern part of the site.
W. Krämer, 1960, The oppidum of Manching. Antiquity, 34, 191–200.Rep.:W. Krämer and F. Schubert, 1970, Die Ausgrabungen in Manching 1955–1961: Einführung und Fundstellenübersicht. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag