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King of Sicily (1258–66). The illegitimate son of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, he ruled in Italy on behalf of Conradin, his half-brother, and with support from the Saracens took the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1257). He was excommunicated by Pope Alexander IV but invaded papal territories in Tuscany. He was again excommunicated by Pope Urban IV who gave his crown to Charles I of Anjou, and he was finally defeated and killed at the battle of Benevento.

Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500).

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