Iowa-born author of Frisian ancestry who also called himself Feike Feikema (1944–51). He began his career as a journalist but in his thirties became a prolific novelist of his native region, which he calls Siouxland, the area of the Minnesota and South Dakota border. His energetic and also poetic novels, often primitive in vision and rough in style, include The Golden Bowl (1944), about a conflict between two generations of Midwest farmers; Boy Almighty (1945), a semi-autobiographical tale of a writer's life as a patient in a Midwest tuberculosis sanitarium; This Is the Year (1947), portraying a willful Frisian farmer; The Chokecherry Tree (1948), depicting an aspiring boy in conflict with Midwest society; The Primitive (1949), The Brother (1950), and The Giant (1951), gathered in the trilogy Wanderlust (1962), about a farm boy who goes to New York; Lord Grizzly (1954), based on the life of the mountain man Hugh Glass; Morning Red (1956), treating journalism and politics in a small Minnesota town; Riders of Judgment (1957), about cattle wars in Wyoming during the 1890s; Conquering Horse (1959), presenting the adolescence of an Indian boy; Scarlet Plume (1964), about a white woman captured by the Sioux in 1862; King of Spades (1966), in part depicting the gold rush of the 1870s into the Black Hills of South Dakota; Eden Prairie (1968), a frank tale of the lives of Midwest rural school-teachers in the 1920s; The Manly-Hearted Woman (1976), about Indian experiences of life and death; Milk of Wolves (1976), portraying a stonecutter who becomes a sculptor; Green Earth (1977), about a Frisian family of tenant farmers in Iowa at the opening of the 20th century; and Sons of Adam (1980), presenting the story of Cain and Abel in the Midwest of the Depression era. Arrow of Love (1961) and Apples of Paradise (1968) collect stories. Winter Count (1966) is a volume of poems. The Wind Blows Free (1980) is a memoir of hitchhiking from Iowa to the Rockies in the 1930s.