Manchild in the Promised Land

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Briton Hammon (1747—1760)


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“Where does one run to when he's already in the promised land?” Claude Brown opens Manchild in the Promised Land (1965) with a political challenge framed as religious metaphor. His autobiography explores this question, documenting his childhood in Harlem during the 1940s and 1950s, with a broader focus on an entire generation, the children of southern-born African Americans who had moved north after the depression. More specifically, Brown portrays the generational conflict that resulted when parents tried to impose rural ways of survival on their children, who struggled with the “new ways” of the urban street. As Manchild unfolds, Brown's sociological analysis becomes more apparent and his political consciousness emerges as he places his own life, and Harlem more generally, within the broader context of American racial and economic patterns.

Several story lines underlie the many specific and sometimes seemingly random episodes in the narrative. Brown charts his flight from family conflict to the relative emotional security of life on the street with his friends. He finds relief from the street in juvenile detention, again accompanied by his closest friends. He escapes the perils of the drug scene and the real threat of longer incarceration by embracing the intellectual challenge of books, school, and music; this embrace leads to a time of self-imposed exile from Harlem and a struggle with his identity and sense of “home.” Finally, he returns to Harlem with a redefined sense of self and community.

Brown's “sociological imagination” takes shape in the form of explicit and analytical social criticism. He documents the emerging “plague” of heroin in excruciating detail, an account remarkable for its harsh condemnation of the drug combined with profound (and intimate) compassion for the addicts, many of whom were his closest friends, including his beloved younger brother. In an autobiography framed by biblical and religious metaphor, Brown criticizes charismatic and “sanctified” Harlem preachers at the same time that he lauds the activism of seminary-trained urban clergy. He gives a sometimes bemused and skeptical analysis of both the Coptic movement and the Black Muslims. Here Brown expresses an impatience with what he calls these “phases” of Harlem Black Nationalism, but also, especially in regard to the Black Muslims, an appreciation for the social and political impact of their work in the community. Manchild also offers an interesting analysis of class dynamics in Harlem. Brown is notably unapologetic and brutally honest in re-creating his early attitudes toward women and in showing his emerging personal (and political) maturity in relation to them as he grew older. He also offers revealing commentary on tensions between African American and Jewish communities in New York City.

Manchild in the Promised Land has not been the subject of extensive literary criticism; most book reviews contemporary with its publication focused on the sociological aspects of the book. These mid-1960s reviews varied depending on the political and racial frame of reference of the reviewer. James A. Emanuel and Theodore Gross, the editors of Dark Symphony (1968), placed Manchild in the long and complex tradition of African American autobiography, citing it as a “modern analogue” to Briton Hammon's slave narrative of 1760. The book's sociological emphasis crosses several genres: literary autobiography, sociology, and political analysis.


Subjects: Literature.

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