(1863–1934), French explorer of Africa. Born in Thoissey, France, on November 22, 1863, Jean-Baptiste Marchand spent his whole adult career in the French military. As the leader of the ill-conceived and politically motivated Congo-Nile Mission, Captain Marchand was embroiled in what became known as the “Fashoda Incident,” a preposterous event so serious that it could have culminated in a war between France and England. The French government sent a dozen officers, commanded by Marchand, across the whole of equatorial Africa (much of it yet uncharted) for the purpose of controlling the equatorial headwaters of the Nile basin against the might of both the British and the Egyptian armies.
From The Oxford Companion to World Exploration in Oxford Reference.
Subjects: World History.