The Anglo‐Scottish border. The border lands of both England and Scotland were divided into two or three marches. Northumberland with Berwick‐on‐Tweed was the east march ‘towards Scotland’ and Cumberland and Westmorland the west march. In both kingdoms, wardens were commissioned to restrain inhabitants of their marches from cross‐border crime in times of truce, and to mobilize them in wartime. Magnates with lands in the marches, and therefore tenants, were normally appointed. Percy and Neville wardens led their private armies of marchmen against the king and each other. The wardenships were abolished in 1603, when the two kingdoms came under the personal union of James VI and I.
Subjects: British History.