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Nephew and son‐in‐law of Darius I of Persia, took over command in Ionia c.492 bc, immediately after the Ionian Revolt, and removed one major cause of discontent by abolishing government through tyrants (see tyranny) and permitting democracies. He then restored Persian authority in southern Thrace, despite storm damage to his fleet off Mt. Athos. Herodotus makes him the moving spirit of Xerxes' invasion. Left in command in Greece after the battle of Salamis, he vainly attempted to detach Athens from the Hellenic League by offers of favourable terms. Withdrawing from Attica in 479 in face of the Greek land‐forces, he gave battle (perhaps reluctantly) near Plataea and was defeated and killed (see persian wars).

Subjects: Classical Studies.

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