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François Couperin (1668—1733) French composer, organist, and harpsichordist

Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632—1687) French composer, born in Italy

funeral march

Pomp and Circumstance

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(Fr. marche, Ger. Marsch, It. marcia).

Form of mus. to accompany the orderly progress of large group of people, especially soldiers; one of earliest known mus. forms. Military marches are of 4 kinds: funeral (4/4 time), slow (usually 4/4), quick (2/4 or 6/8), and double‐quick. The march entered art mus. in 17th cent. in the works of Couperin and Lully, but there are marches in virginals pieces by Byrd. Marches occur in the operas of Mozart (e.g. Die Entführung, Figaro, Così fan tutte, and Zauberflöte); Schubert wrote Marches militaires and Beethoven incorporated a funeral march into his Eroica sym., as did Chopin into a pf. sonata. Famous operatic marches were written by Meyerbeer, Wagner, and Verdi. It was further developed in the sym. by Berlioz, Mahler, Tchaikovsky, and Elgar. Military marches for concert perf. by sym. orch. were written by Elgar (Pomp and Circumstance) and R. Strauss. Some of the best military marches were written in the 19th cent. by Sousa, Johann Strauss I, and Lanner.

Subjects: Music.

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