British archaeologist known for his work as Director-General of Archaeological Survey in India. Born in Chester and educated at Dulwich and King's College, Cambridge, he received an excellent training in classical archaeology. Between 1898 and 1901 he was based at the British School in Athens, taking part in excavations at Knossos and various other sites on Crete. In 1902 he was appointed Director-General of Archaeology in India and from then until 1934 he set about reorganizing the department, recruiting Indians to work for the Survey, creating scholarship and training programmes, listing and recording ancient remains, and expanding the provision of museums. In addition he excavated many sites, notably Mohenjodaro, reported in a three-volume work entitled Mohenjodaro and the Indus civilization (1931, London: A Probsthain); Sanchi in central India, with its fascinating group of Buddhist monuments; and Taxila in the Punjab, which is closely associated with Alexander the Great's campaigns in the east, the Buddhist emperor Asoka, the Parthian king Gondofares, and Apolonius of Tyana. Marshall was knighted in 1914 and was awarded many honorary degrees, medals, and prizes. In 1936 he was elected a Fellow of the British Academy.
From The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology in Oxford Reference.