Martin IV

(c. 1210—1285)

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Louis IX (1214—1270)

Urban IV (c. 1200—1264)

Nicholas III (1277—1280)

Gregory X (1210—1276)

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Pope from 1281. Simon de Brie was elected through the influence of Charles of Anjou, on whom he remained dependent throughout his pontificate. With a view to assisting the planned attack on the Greek Empire, in 1281 he excommunicated the Emp. Michael Palaeologus, thus endangering the union of the Latin and Greek Churches achieved at the Council of Lyons in 1274.

Subjects: Christianity.

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