Born Margaret Marcus in the United States. Converted from Judaism to Islam in 1961. Became a spokesperson for Islam, defending Muslim beliefs against Western criticism and championing Muslim causes. Corresponded with Sayyid Abu al-Ala Mawdudi from 1960 to 1962 and moved to Pakistan in 1962 at his invitation. Has written a number of books systematically outlining Jamaat-i Islami's ideology and serves as one of its chief ideologues, although she has never formally joined the party. Focuses in her written works on the debate between Islam and the West, offering a revivalist critique of Christianity, Judaism, secular Western thought, and Islamic modernism.