(suborder Apocrita, super-family Vespoidea)
Family of medium-sized (9–24 mm long), stout-bodied wasps, which are often strongly marked with orange. They are sometimes regarded as a subfamily of the Vespidae, but should be excluded from that family on the basis of the relatively weak wing coupling, the possession of two submarginal wing cells (vespids have three), and other structural features. The antennae are clubbed, and the mandibles do not cross over. Single nests or groups of nests are provisioned with pollen and nectar, and are constructed of mud or sand attached to rocks or twigs.
Subjects: Zoology and Animal Sciences.