(b Cracow, 24 June 1838; d Cracow, 1 Nov. 1893).
The most famous Polish painter of his time. Apart from periods of study in Munich and Vienna, he was based in Cracow all his career, and in 1873 he became director of the city's School of Fine Arts (his pupils there included Wyspiański). Matejko specialized in enormous, colourful canvases depicting notable scenes from Poland's history (Battle of Grunwald, 1875–8, Nat. Mus., Warsaw). He also painted portraits.