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# Mathematical Notation

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## Quick Reference

SymbolReference

∞ infinity

! see factorial

′ For a function f, f′(x) is the derivative of f(x) with respect to x

′ For a set, see complementary event

′ For a matrix, see matrix

(a, b) an open interval, i.e. the set of real numbers between a and b: a<x<b

ℝ the set of all real numbers

n the set of all row vectors, or column vectors, with n real elements

∪ union

∩ intersection

≈ approximately equal to

< less than

≤ less than or equal to

> greater than

≥ greater than or equal to

→ tends to, e.g. n → ∞

|x| absolute value of x

aba raised to the power b

a ½ √a, the (positive) square root of a

B beta function, see beta function

y/x partial derivative of y with respect to x. See Hessian matrix

Max {x1, x2,…, xn} the greatest of {x1, x2,…, xn}

Min {x1, x2,…, xn} the least of {x1, x2,…, xn}

Sign(x) the sign of x, i.e.

X a matrix

x a vector

{rj} the set r1, r2,…

Binomial coefficient

Σ sum of terms

Π product of terms

From A Dictionary of Statistics in Oxford Reference.

Subjects: Probability and Statistics.

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