Son of Hecatomnus. Ruler of Caria 377–353 bc, in conjunction with his sister and wife Artemisia, and a diffuser of Hellenism in 4th‐cent. Asia Minor, who nevertheless promoted or retained the local Carian element. (He made dedications in Greek, but only at culturally mixed sanctuaries.) Greek artists worked on his Mausoleum, but it has some non‐Greek features.
He ruled under Persian auspices (see persia), and used the title satrap in inscriptions. He moved his capital from Mylasa to Halicarnassus in the 370s, perhaps announcing thereby an interest in Aegean politics. His area of direct control was large and his sphere of influence larger. He annexed Rhodes, Chios, and Cos in the 350s.
Subjects: Classical Studies.