Sing. mauda. Non-Arab Muslims. Initially referred to those captured during the expansion of Islam throughout the Near East and parts of the Byzantine Empire who ultimately converted to Islam. Also refers to clients of Arab tribes. Under the Umayyad dynasty (661–750) mawali were not entitled to equal treatment with Arab Muslims, particularly with respect to taxes. Preferential treatment of Arab Muslims came to be a source of contention since it violated the Quranic declaration of equality of all believers. Under the subsequent Abbasid dynasty (750–1258), distinctions between Arab and non-Arab Muslims were not stressed.