statesman. In the service of Urban VIII, he went to Avignon. In 1639 he became a naturalized Frenchman and in 1640 entered the service of Louis XIII, at whose instigation he was made a cardinal in 1641. In 1642 he succeeded A. J. du P. Richelieu as chief minister; he practically ruled France until his death. At the Peace of Westphalia (1648) he enlarged France's territory, but he could not prevent the country's economic crisis or the civil wars of the Fronde (1648–53). He pursued a policy of reconciliation towards the Huguenots. He continued the war with Spain and eventually secured the victorious Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659).