(1836–1927) Confederate army officer, born in St. Louis, Missouri. McCausland, while under the command of Jubal Early, led his brigade in a retaliatory raid on Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, burning the town to the ground, destroying more than 500 structures, and causing nearly $1 million in property damage, all the while engaging in drunkenness and looting (1864). He later led his command in the final operations in the Shenandoah Valley (1864) and participated in the Appomattox campaign (1865). After the war he went into exile because of an indictment against him in Pennsylvania and a War Department order for his arrest, but he returned to the United States in 1868 when assured he would not be prosecuted. Prior to the raid that led to his being called “the Hun of Chambersburg,” McCausland, a member of a Virginia infantry unit, had seen most of his action under various commanders in the western portions of that state (now West Virginia).
From The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military in Oxford Reference.
Subjects: Warfare and Defence.