House of Iturbide–Empire of Mexico
House of Habsburg-Lorraine
House of Braganza–Empire of Brazil
Haring, C. H., Empire in Brazil: a New World Experiment with Monarchy (Cambridge, Mass., 1969).Meyer, M. C., and W. L. Sherman, The Course of Mexican History (3rd edn., New York, 1987).
Agustín I (Agustín de Iturbide) (proclaimed emperor following Mexican independence 1821; abdicated, died 1824; republic 1823–64)
Maximilian I (brother of Francis Joseph I, emperor of Austria; republic 1867)
Pedro I (regent 1821–2; proclaimed emperor at Brazilian independence 1822; king of Portugal 1826–8; abdicated, died 1834)
Pedro II (son; deposed, died 1891; proclamation of the republic)