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An umbrella term used in Canada to describe and define the people of mixed European and Indian descent. The Métis, especially in Manitoba, had established themselves by the early nineteenth century as buffalo hunters and provisioners to the North West Company. With the disappearance of the great buffalo herds, however, they were left with no means of providing for themselves. When a promised land grant of nearly 1.5 million acres was lost to predominantly European settlement after 1870, the Métis became increasingly agitated. Two unsuccessful rebellions led by Louis Riel (b. 22 Oct. 1844, d. 16 Nov. 1885) left the Métis dispersed and with little political influence. Their population and their morale reached an all-time low just after 1900 until they began to organize and articulate their demands in the 1930s. A. H. de Tremaudan's History of the Métis Nation in Western Canada appeared in 1936, while the lobbying of newly created provincial interest groups led to the creation of the first provincial public inquiry into their concerns in Alberta (1934–6). Their concerns received greater attention from the 1960s onwards, as they lobbied for further cultural recognition and realization of land claims in conjunction with the other native peoples, the Canadian Indians and the Inuit. In 1982, the Métis were recognized as a distinct aboriginal people in the Canadian Constitution. Since then, the Métis have been formally represented by the Métis National Council which demanded the settlement of land claims, the recognition of Métis culture, and particular support for urban Métis.Nunavut; land claims, native (Canada) http://www.metisnation.caThe official website of the Métis National Council.

Nunavut; land claims, native (Canada)

Subjects: History of the Americas.

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