Cyanobacterial toxins that are important environmental hazards. They are cyclic heptapeptides containing an unusual hydrophobic amino acid, 3-amino-9-methoxy-10-phenyl-2,6,8-trimethyl-deca-4,6-dienoic acid (ADDA), which is important for their activity. They are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases, acting at the same site as okadaic acid. Microcystin MC-LR is the most studied and is hepatotoxic and probably carcinogenic. Other cyanobacterial toxins include anatoxins, cylindrospermopsin, domoic acid, and nodularins.
Subjects: Medicine and Health.