1 In Egypt, covering the 12th and 13th Dynasties, c.2100–1750 bc, the period of Egyptian history following the reunification of Upper and Lower Egypt by the 11th Dynasty king Mentahopte II, ushering in more than two centuries of stability and prosperity.
2 A translation of the Chinese Chung Kuo, now the Chinese name for the country known in the west as China. It was anciently used to designate the part of the Chou feudal realm that was governed by the king of Chou; later it came to mean that part of China whose inhabitants were true Chinese. Thus the southern kingdoms of Ch'u, Wu, and Yüeh were not seen as parts of the Middle Kingdom, and doubts were expressed about whether the western Ch'in should be so regarded.
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